We propose a general and flexible capture–recapture model in continuous time. Our model incorporates time-heterogeneity, observed and unobserved individual heterogeneity, and behavioral response to capture. Behavioral response can possibly have a delayed onset and a finite-time memory. Estimation of the population size is based on the conditional likelihood after use of the EM algorithm. We develop an application to the estimation of the number of adult cannabinoid users in Italy.
"Heterogeneity and behavioral response in continuous time capture–recapture, with application to street cannabis use in Italy." Ann. Appl. Stat. 7 (4) 2293 - 2314, December 2013. https://doi.org/10.1214/13-AOAS672