Open Access
2020 Can $p$-values be meaningfully interpreted without random sampling?
Norbert Hirschauer, Sven Grüner, Oliver Mußhoff, Claudia Becker, Antje Jantsch
Statist. Surv. 14: 71-91 (2020). DOI: 10.1214/20-SS129


Besides the inferential errors that abound in the interpretation of $p$-values, the probabilistic pre-conditions (i.e. random sampling or equivalent) for using them at all are not often met by observational studies in the social sciences. This paper systematizes different sampling designs and discusses the restrictive requirements of data collection that are the indispensable prerequisite for using $p$-values.


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Norbert Hirschauer. Sven Grüner. Oliver Mußhoff. Claudia Becker. Antje Jantsch. "Can $p$-values be meaningfully interpreted without random sampling?." Statist. Surv. 14 71 - 91, 2020.


Received: 1 August 2019; Published: 2020
First available in Project Euclid: 27 March 2020

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1214/20-SS129

Keywords: $P$-values , inference , propensity scores , random sampling , sampling design , selection bias

Vol.14 • 2020
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