This comment emphasizes the importance of model checking and model fitting when making inferences about finite population quantities. It also suggests the value of using unit level models when making inferences for small subpopulations, that is, “small area” analyses.
"Discussion of “Impact of Frequentist and Bayesian Methods on Survey Sampling Practice: A Selective Appraisal” by J. N. K. Rao." Statist. Sci. 26 (2) 260 - 261, May 2011. https://doi.org/10.1214/11-STS346B