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We develop a new notion of independence (þ-independence, read “thorn”-independence) that arises from a family of ranks suggested by Scanlon (þ-ranks). We prove that in a large class of theories (including simple theories and o-minimal theories) this notion has many of the properties needed for an adequate geometric structure.
We prove that þ-independence agrees with the usual independence notions in stable, supersimple and o-minimal theories. Furthermore, we give some evidence that the equivalence between forking and þ-forking in simple theories might be closely related to one of the main open conjectures in simplicity theory, the stable forking conjecture. In particular, we prove that in any simple theory where the stable forking conjecture holds, þ-independence and forking independence agree.
We investigate the set (ω) of partitions of the natural numbers ordered by ≤* where A ≤* B if by gluing finitely many blocks of A we can get a partition coarser than B. In particular, we determine the values of a number of cardinals which are naturally associated with the structure ((ω),≥*), in terms of classical cardinal invariants of the continuum.
We present a generalisation of the type-theoretic interpretation of constructive set theory into Martin-Löf type theory. The generalisation involves replacing Martin-Löf type theory with a new type theory in which logic is treated as primitive instead of being formulated via the propositions-as-types representation. The original interpretation treated logic in Martin-Löf type theory via the propositions-as-types interpretation. The generalisation involves replacing Martin-Löf type theory with a new type theory in which logic is treated as primitive. The primitive treatment of logic in type theories allows us to study reinterpretations of logic, such as the double-negation translation.
We show that there is a restriction, or modification of the finite-variable fragments of First Order Logic in which a weak form of Craig’s Interpolation Theorem holds but a strong form of this theorem does not hold. Translating these results into Algebraic Logic we obtain a finitely axiomatizable subvariety of finite dimensional Representable Cylindric Algebras that has the Strong Amalgamation Property but does not have the Superamalgamation Property. This settles a conjecture of Pigozzi .
Effective domain theory is applied to fuzzy logic. The aim is to give suitable notions of semi-decidable and decidable L-subset and to investigate about the effectiveness of the fuzzy deduction apparatus.
The quantified relevant logic RQ is given a new semantics in which a formula ∀ x A is true when there is some true proposition that implies all x-instantiations of A. Formulae are modelled as functions from variable-assignments to propositions, where a proposition is a set of worlds in a relevant model structure. A completeness proof is given for a basic quantificational system QR from which RQ is obtained by adding the axiom EC of ‘extensional confinement’: ∀ x(A∨ B)→(A∨∀ xB), with x not free in A. Validity of EC requires an additional model condition involving the boolean difference of propositions. A QR-model falsifying EC is constructed by forming the disjoint union of two natural arithmetical structures in which negation is interpreted by the minus operation.
We study definability of second order generalized quantifiers on finite structures. Our main result says that for every second order type t there exists a second order generalized quantifier of type t which is not definable in the extension of second order logic by all second order generalized quantifiers of types lower than t.
It is shown that coherence conditions for monoidal categories concerning associativity are analogous to coherence conditions for symmetric strictly monoidal categories, where associativity arrows are identities. Mac Lane’s pentagonal coherence condition for associativity is decomposed into conditions concerning commutativity, among which we have a condition analogous to naturality and a degenerate case of Mac Lane’s hexagonal condition for commutativity. This decomposition is analogous to the derivation of the Yang-Baxter equation from Mac Lane’s hexagon and the naturality of commutativity. The pentagon is reduced to an inductive definition of a kind of commutativity.
It is shown that, according to NF, many of the assertions of ordinal arithmetic involving the T-function which is peculiar to NF turn out to be equivalent to the truth-in-certain-permutation-models of assertions which have perfectly sensible ZF-style meanings, such as: the existence of wellfounded sets of great size or rank, or the nonexistence of small counterexamples to the wellfoundedness of ∈. Everything here holds also for NFU if the permutations are taken to fix all urelemente.
Let N be a transitive model of ZFC such that ω N ⊂ N and 𝒫(ℝ) ⊂ N. Assume that both V and N satisfy “the core model K exists.” Then KN is an iterate of K, i.e., there exists an iteration tree 𝒯 on K such that 𝒯 has successor length and ℳ𝒯∞ = KN. Moreover, if there exists an elementary embedding π : V → N then the iteration map associated to the main branch of 𝒯 equals π ↾ K. (This answers a question of W. H. Woodin, M. Gitik, and others.) The hypothesis that 𝒫(ℝ) ⊂ N is not needed if there does not exist a transitive model of ZFC with infinitely many Woodin cardinals.
In , Yates proved the existence of a Turing degree a such that 0, 0’ are the only c.e. degrees comparable with it. By Slaman and Steel , every degree below 0’ has a 1-generic complement, and as a consequence, Yates degrees can be 1-generic, and hence can be low. In this paper, we prove that Yates degrees occur in every jump class.
In this paper we show that there are “E0 many” orbit inequivalent free actions of the free groups 𝔽n, 2≮ n≮∞ by measure preserving transformations on a standard Borel probability space. In particular, there are uncountably many such actions.
Makkai  produced an arithmetical structure of Scott rank ω1CK. In , Makkai’s example is made computable. Here we show that there are computable trees of Scott rank ω1CK. We introduce a notion of “rank homogeneity”. In rank homogeneous trees, orbits of tuples can be understood relatively easily. By using these trees, we avoid the need to pass to the more complicated “group trees” of  and . Using the same kind of trees, we obtain one of rank ω1CK that is “strongly computably approximable”. We also develop some technology that may yield further results of this kind.
Nominal logic is a variant of first-order logic in which abstract syntax with names and binding is formalized in terms of two basic operations: name-swapping and freshness. It relies on two important principles: equivariance (validity is preserved by name-swapping), and fresh name generation (“new” or fresh names can always be chosen). It is inspired by a particular class of models for abstract syntax trees involving names and binding, drawing on ideas from Fraenkel-Mostowski set theory: finite-support models in which each value can depend on only finitely many names.
Although nominal logic is sound with respect to such models, it is not complete. In this paper we review nominal logic and show why finite-support models are insufficient both in theory and practice. We then identify (up to isomorphism) the class of models with respect to which nominal logic is complete: ideal-supported models in which the supports of values are elements of a proper ideal on the set of names.
We also investigate an appropriate generalization of Herbrand models to nominal logic. After adjusting the syntax of nominal logic to include constants denoting names, we generalize universal theories to nominal-universal theories and prove that each such theory has an Herbrand model.
A structure of finite signature is constructed so that: for all existential formulas ∃y⃗ φ(x⃗,y⃗) and for all tuples of elements ⃗ of the same length as the tuple x⃗, one can decide in a quadratic time depending only on the length of the formula, if ∃y⃗ φ(u⃗,y⃗) holds in the structure. In other words, the structure satisfies the relativized model-theoretic version of P=NP in the sense of . This is a model-theoretical approach to results of Hemmerling and Gaßner.
We define a notion of realizability, based on a new assignment of formulas, which does not care for precise witnesses of existential statements, but only for bounds for them. The novel form of realizability supports a very general form of the FAN theorem, refutes Markov’s principle but meshes well with some classical principles, including the lesser limited principle of omniscience and weak König’s lemma. We discuss some applications, as well as some previous results in the literature.
We investigate the geometry of forking for SU-rank 2 elements in supersimple ω-categorical theories and prove stable forking and some structural properties for such elements. We extend this analysis to the case of SU-rank 3 elements.
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