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A nonequilibrium open system is studied in the projection operator formalism. The environment may linearly deviate from its initial state under the reaction from the open system. If the relevant statistical operator of the system is a generalized canonical one, the transport equation, the second kind of fluctuation-dissipation theorem and the entropy production rate of the open system can be derived and expressed in terms of correlation functions of fluctuations of random forces and interaction random forces.
Standard mathematics (involving such notions as infinitely small/large and continuity) is usually treated as fundamental while finite mathematics is treated as inferior which is used only in special applications. In the first part of this note we argue that the situation is the opposite: standard mathematics is only a degenerate case of finite one in the formal limit when the characteristic of the ring or field used in finite mathematics goes to infinity, and finite mathematics is more pertinent for describing nature than standard one. In the second part we argue that foundation of finite mathematics is natural while foundational problems of standard mathematics are not fundamental.
The scattering of a Dirac particle has been studied for a quaternionic potential step. In the potential region an additional diffusion solution is obtained. The quaternionic solution which generalizes the complex one presents an amplification of the reflection and transmission rates. A detailed analysis of the quaternionic spinorial velocities shed new light on the additional solution. For pure quaternionic potentials, the interesting and surprising result of total transmission is found. This suggests that the presence of pure quaternionic potentials cannot be seen by analyzing the reflection or transmission rates. It has been observed by measuring the mean value of some operator.
The theory of algebraic varieties gives an algebraic interpretation of differential geometry, thus of our physical world. To treat, among other physical properties, the theory of entanglement, we need to generalize the space parametrizing the objects of physics. We do this by introducing noncommutative varieties.
Ordinary commutative algebraic geometry is based on commutative polynomial algebras over an algebraically closed field $k$. Here we make a natural generalization to matrix polynomial $k$-algebras which are non-commutative coordinate rings of non-commutative varieties.
Direct mathematical method is used in this paper to calculate the photo peak efficiency of a system containing a radioactive source placed in the well of a well type detector. Attenuation of the source and detector’s walls are included. In addition summing corrections are also included. The comparison between published experimental values and present calculated values are given. This work proved quite success in predicting the photo peak efficiency of certain detectors even for a radionuclide emitting rays with different energies.
Since space is the primary concept of science, we put forward an idea that regularities of unified physics are concealed in a simple relation: everything in the concept of space and the concept of space in everything. With this hypothesis as a ground, a conceptual structure of a unified geometrical theory of fundamental interactions is created and deductive derivation of its main equations is produced. The formulated theory provides opportunity to understand the origin and nature of physical fields and local internal symmetry; time and energy; spin and charge; confinement and quark-lepton symmetry; dark energy and dark matter, giving by this solution of the fundamental physical problems and conforming together with this the existence of new physics in its unity.