In this paper we study the growth of Casson handles which appear inside smooth four-manifolds. A simply-connected and smooth four-manifold admits decompositions of its intersection form. Casson handles appear around one side of the end of them, when the type is even. They are parameterized by signed infinite trees and their growth measures some of the complexity of the smooth structure near the end. We show that with respect to some decompositions of the forms on the K3 surface, the corresponding Casson handles cannot be of bounded type in our sense. In particular they cannot be periodic. The same holds for all logarithmic transforms which are homotopically equivalent to the K3 surface. We construct Yang–Mills gauge theory over Casson handles of bounded type, and verify that transversality works over them.
"Growth of Casson handles and transversality for ASD moduli spaces." Geom. Topol. 12 (3) 1265 - 1311, 2008. https://doi.org/10.2140/gt.2008.12.1265