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2023 Random cubic planar graphs converge to the Brownian sphere
Marie Albenque, Éric Fusy, Thomas Lehéricy
Author Affiliations +
Electron. J. Probab. 28: 1-54 (2023). DOI: 10.1214/23-EJP912


In this paper, the scaling limit of random connected cubic planar graphs (respectively multigraphs) is shown to be the Brownian sphere.

The proof consists in essentially two main steps. First, thanks to the known decomposition of cubic planar graphs into their 3-connected components, the metric structure of a random cubic planar graph is shown to be well approximated by its unique 3-connected component of linear size, with modified distances.

Then, Whitney’s theorem ensures that a 3-connected cubic planar graph is the dual of a simple triangulation, for which it is known that the scaling limit is the Brownian sphere. Curien and Le Gall have recently developed a framework to study the modification of distances in general triangulations and in their dual. By extending this framework to simple triangulations, it is shown that 3-connected cubic planar graphs with modified distances converge jointly with their dual triangulation to the Brownian sphere.

Funding Statement

M.A.’s research was supported by the ANR grant GATO (ANR-16-CE40-0009-01) and the ANR grant IsOMa (ANR-21-CE48-0007). E.F. acknowledges the support of the ANR grant GATO (ANR-16-CE40-0009-01) and the ANR grant Combine (ANR-19-CE48-0011).


We are grateful to an anonymous referee, whose careful reading significantly improved the presentation of this paper.


Download Citation

Marie Albenque. Éric Fusy. Thomas Lehéricy. "Random cubic planar graphs converge to the Brownian sphere." Electron. J. Probab. 28 1 - 54, 2023.


Received: 31 May 2022; Accepted: 1 February 2023; Published: 2023
First available in Project Euclid: 21 February 2023

arXiv: 2203.17245
Digital Object Identifier: 10.1214/23-EJP912

Primary: 05C10 , 05C12 , 05C80 , 60C05 , 60D05 , 82B41

Keywords: Brownian sphere , Planar graphs , planar maps , Random geometry

Vol.28 • 2023
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