Signal averaging is the process that consists in computing a mean shape from a set of noisy signals. In the presence of geometric variability in time in the data, the usual Euclidean mean of the raw data yields a mean pattern that does not reflect the typical shape of the observed signals. In this setting, it is necessary to use alignment techniques for a precise synchronization of the signals, and then to average the aligned data to obtain a consistent mean shape. In this paper, we study the numerical performances of Fréchet means of curves which are extensions of the usual Euclidean mean to spaces endowed with non-Euclidean metrics. This yields a new algorithm for signal averaging and for the estimation of the time variability of a set of signals. We apply this approach to the analysis of heartbeats from ECG records.
"Fréchet means of curves for signal averaging and application to ECG data analysis." Ann. Appl. Stat. 7 (4) 2384 - 2401, December 2013. https://doi.org/10.1214/13-AOAS676