Open Access
June 2016 An imputation approach for handling mixed-mode surveys
Seunghwan Park, Jae Kwang Kim, Sangun Park
Ann. Appl. Stat. 10(2): 1063-1085 (June 2016). DOI: 10.1214/16-AOAS930


Mixed-mode surveys are becoming more popular recently because of their convenience for users, but different mode effects can complicate the comparability of the survey results. Motivated by the Private Education Expenditure Survey (PEES) of Korea, we propose a novel application of fractional imputation to handle mixed-mode survey data. The proposed method is applied to create imputed values of the unobserved counterfactual outcome variables in the mixed-mode surveys. The proposed method is directly applicable when the choice of survey mode is self-selected. Variance estimation using Taylor linearization is developed. Results from a limited simulation study are also presented.


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Seunghwan Park. Jae Kwang Kim. Sangun Park. "An imputation approach for handling mixed-mode surveys." Ann. Appl. Stat. 10 (2) 1063 - 1085, June 2016.


Received: 1 July 2014; Revised: 1 March 2016; Published: June 2016
First available in Project Euclid: 22 July 2016

zbMATH: 06625681
MathSciNet: MR3528372
Digital Object Identifier: 10.1214/16-AOAS930

Keywords: Counterfactual outcome , fractional imputation , measurement error model , missing data , survey sampling

Rights: Copyright © 2016 Institute of Mathematical Statistics

Vol.10 • No. 2 • June 2016
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