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This paper identifies a previously undiscovered behavior of uniformly distributed data points or vectors in high dimensional ellipsoidal models. Such models give near normal distributions for each of its dimensions. Converse of this may also be true; that is, for a normal-like distribution of an observed variable, it is possible that the distribution is a result of uniform distribution of data points in a high dimensional ellipsoidal model, to which the observed variable belongs. Given the currently held notion of normal distributions, this new behavior raises many interesting questions. This paper also attempts to answer some of those questions. We cover both volume based (filled) and surface based (shell) ellipsoidal models. The phenomenon is demonstrated using statistical as well as mathematical approaches. We also show that the dimensionality of the latent model, that is, the number of hidden variables in a system, can be calculated from the observed distribution. We call the new distribution “Tanazur” and show through experiments that it is at least observed in one real world scenario, that of the motion of particles in an ideal gas. We show that the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of particle speeds can be explained on the basis of Tanazur distributions.
The multistage homotopy-perturbation method (MHPM) is applied to the nonlinear chaotic and hyperchaotic Lü systems. MHPM is a technique adapted from the standard homotopy-perturbation method (HPM) where the HPM is treated as an algorithm in a sequence of time intervals. To ensure the precision of the technique applied in this work, the results are compared with a fourth-order Runge-Kutta method and the standard HPM. The results show that the MHPM is an efficient and powerful technique in solving both chaotic and hyperchaotic systems.
This paper aims to study the influence of thermal radiation on unsteady magnetohyrdodynamic (MHD) natural convection flow of an optically thick fluid over a vertical plate embedded in a porous medium with arbitrary shear stress. Combined phenomenon of heat and mass transfer is considered. Closed-form solutions in general form are obtained by using the Laplace transform technique. They are expressed in terms of exponential and complementary error functions. Velocity is expressed as a sum of thermal and mechanical parts. Corresponding limiting solutions are also reduced from the general solutions. It is found that the obtained solutions satisfy all imposed initial and boundary conditions and reduce to some known solutions from the literature as special cases. Analytical results for the pertinent flow parameters are drawn graphically and discussed in detail. It is found that the velocity profiles of fluid decrease with increasing shear stress. The magnetic parameter develops shear resistance which reduces the fluid motion whereas the inverse permeability parameter increases the fluid flow.
The objective of this study is to explore the influence of wall slip condition on a free convection flow of an incompressible viscous fluid with heat transfer and ramped wall temperature. Exact solution of the problem is obtained by using Laplace transform technique. Graphical results to see the effects of Prandtl number Pr, time , and slip parameter on velocity and skin friction for the case of ramped and constant temperature of the plate are provided and discussed.